AIDS magnifies the force of the quite different yet complementary messages increasingly heard by the people in this society who are accustomed to being able to provide pleasures for themselves. (Nor are they wrong in thinking that depictions of Africa as the cradle of AIDS must feed anti-African prejudices in Europe and Asia.) Susan Sontag quote: Victims suggest innocence. I think racism is a bottom-line AIDS issue. AIDS quickly became a global event—discussed not only in New York, Paris, Rio, Kinshasa but also in Helsinki, Buenos Aires, Beijing, and Singapore—when it was far from the leading cause of death in Africa, much less in the world. For beyond the real epidemic with its inexorably mounting death toll (statistics are issued by national and international health organizations every week, every month) is a qualitatively different, much greater disaster which we think both will and will not take place. The reduction in the imperative of promiscuity in the middle class, a growth of the ideal of monogamy, of a prudent sexual life, is as marked in, say, Stockholm, with its tiny number of AIDS cases, as it is in New York, where the disease can accurately be called of epidemic proportions. The Eurocentric presumption of this and similar statements hardly needs pointing out. “Be careful. More and more of them are drawn to programs of self-management and self-discipline—diet, exercise. It was supposed to be brought to Europe by them, and it is a disease of all people who lead lives in which disregard of consequences dominate. The succession of cholera epidemics in the nineteenth century shows a steady waning of religious interpretations of the disease: more precisely, these increasingly coexisted with other explanations. The Methodist preachers in England who connected the cholera epidemic of 1832 with drunkenness (the temperance movement was just starting) were not understood to be claiming that everybody who got cholera was a drunkard: there is always room for “innocent victims” (children, young women). Tags: suffering, most, deeply, feared, degrades Like some rabid animal, AIDS picked me up by the scruff of my neck, shook me senseless, and spat me out forever changed. The plague metaphor is an essential vehicle of the most pessimistic reading of the epidemiological prospects. That it is a punishment for deviant behavior and that it threatens the innocent—these two notions about AIDS are hardly in contradiction. When the movie director in Alain Tanner’s film La Vallée Fantôme (1987) muses, “Cinema is like a cancer,” and then corrects himself, “No, it’s infectious, it’s more like AIDS,” the comparison seems lumberingly self-conscious as well as a decided underuse of the metaphor of AIDS. Such token appeals for mass mobilization to confront an unprecedented menace appear, at frequent intervals, in every mass society. ↩, Reagan’s affirmation through cliché of the frightening reality of a disease of other people contrasts with his more original denial of the reality of his own illness. A writer in The New York Times declared (April 22, 1866): “Cholera is especially the punishment of neglect of sanitary laws; it is the curse of the dirty, the intemperate, and the degraded.”4. (“The killer AIDS virus was artificially created by American scientists during laboratory experiments which went disastrously wrong—and a massive cover-up has kept the secret from the world until today.”) Though ignored by most American newspapers, the Sunday Express story was published in virtually every other country. Like their biological namesakes, they won’t produce immediate signs of damage to the computer’s memory, which gives the newly “infected” program time to spread to other computers. The battle against AIDS is not a last decade issue. There are no words. But the great influenza epidemic, which killed twenty million people, was an affair of fifteen months. —Michael Ignatieff, The New Republic The advent of AIDS has made it clear that the infectious diseases are far from conquered and their roster far from closed. By the nineteenth century the foreign origin was usually more exotic, the means of transport less specifically imagined, and the illness itself had become phantasmagorical, symbolic. In AIDS and Its Metaphors, Sontag clarifies and defends the position she took ten years earlier in Illness as Metaphor, and extends some of her thoughts on disease metaphors to what is now – in 1988 – the new, stigmatized, apocalyptic disease: AIDS. But there is a larger meaning in all these messages about being careful, not being ignorant, that will hasten the acceptance of this kind of public service ad in the US as well. This is everybody's problem. Sep 21, 2020 illness as metaphor and aids and its metaphors Posted By Enid BlytonLibrary TEXT ID 84601af0 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library Aids And Its Metaphors Sontag Susan 9780374102579 in illness as metaphor which focused on cancer sontag argued that the myths and metaphors surrounding disease can kill by instilling shame and guilt in the sick thus delaying them from seeking treatment Making AIDS everyone’s problem and therefore a subject on which everyone needs to be educated, the antiliberal AIDS mythologists charge, subverts our understanding of the difference between “us” and “them”; indeed exculpates or at least makes irrelevant moral judgments about “them.” (In such rhetoric the disease continues to be identified almost exclusively with homosexuality, and specifically with the practice of sodomy.). To the death of oceans and lakes and forests, the unchecked growth of populations in the poor parts of the world, nuclear accidents like Chernobyl, the puncturing and depletion of the ozone layer, the perennial threat of nuclear confrontation between the super-powers or nuclear attack by one of the rogue states not under super-power control—to all these, now add AIDS. “This epidemic is worldwide and is sparing no continent,” said Dr. Willy Rozenbaum, a French AIDS specialist. AIDS also seems the very model of all the catastrophes privileged populations feel await them. In Karel Capek’s The White Plague (1937), the loathsome pestilence that has appeared in a state where fascism has come to power afflicts only those over the age of forty, those who could be held morally responsible. AIDS is everyone’s Trojan horse: six months before the 1988 Olympics the South Korean government announced that it would be distributing free condoms to all foreign participants. Instead, peoples are “visited” by plagues. All rights reserved. There is the event and its image. She saw guilt and shame; and she saw these as impediments to people's treatments. Not its infectiousness but its characteristic latency offers a more distinctive metaphoric use. 10 Quotes About HIV/AIDS. Cancer was a disease of an individual, and understood as the result not of an action but rather of a failure to act (to be prudent, to exert proper self-control, or to be properly expressive). Our HIV-positive friends get up and put on their best, bravest faces every morning, and by noon, they may look pretty good. Many of the myths concerning cancer arose from ignorance about its causes, an aspect Sontag discusses in her companion essay, AIDS and its Metaphors. In France computer specialists already speak of the problem of “le sida informatique.”) And they reinforce the sense of the omnipresence of AIDS. Sexual exchanges are to be carried out only after forethought. It's still out there, and our friends are still suffering, despite how good they may look to you and me. And perhaps even more so to the United States. (Either the too little and becoming less: waning, decline, entropy. Take care of yourself. The catastrophe of AIDS suggests the immediate necessity of limitation, of constraint for the body and for consciousness. It lies perhaps in the very concept of wrong, which is archaically identical with the non-us, the alien. Two kinds of disaster, actually. AkagawaLtd TEXT ID 84601af0 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library aids and its metaphors reviewed by paul robinson jan 22 1989 susan sontags purpose in aids and its metaphors is to show how the way we talk and think about aids makes the disease even Many barbers and dentists wore masks and gloves, as dentists and dental hygienists do now. This combined edition is the one referenced here. When asked how he felt after his cancer operation, he declared: “I didn’t have cancer. Virology supplies a new set of medical metaphors independent of AIDS which nevertheless reinforce the AIDS imagery. Do what you want. Considering illness as a punishment is the oldest idea of what causes illness—an idea opposed by all attention to the ill that deserves the noble name of medicine. (Or feels as if it is in slow motion, because we know about it, can anticipate it; and now have to wait for it to happen, to catch up with what we think we know.). From classic fiction to the latest journalism, the standard plague story is of inexorability, inescapability. “The Orientals, however, have more quiet fortitude than Europeans under afflictions of this sort.”. Responses to illnesses associated with sinners and the poor invariably recommended the adoption of middle-class values: the regular habits, productivity, and emotional self-control to which drunkenness was thought the chief impediment.3 Health itself was eventually identified with these values, which were religious as well as mercantile, health being evidence of virtue as disease was of depravity. Hardly an invention of the male homosexual subculture, recreational sexuality without risk is an inevitable feature of the culture of capitalism, and was guaranteed by medicine as well. It is bound to happen with AIDS, when the illness is much better understood and, above all, treatable. The age-old, seemingly inexorable, process whereby diseases acquire meanings (by coming to stand for people’s deepest fears) and inflict stigma is always worth challenging, and it does seem to have more limited credibility in the modern world; the process itself is being questioned now. The radical right is so homophobic that they're blaming global warming on the AIDS quilt. Europe is assumed to be by rights free of disease. But in fact the look into the future, which was once tied to a vision of linear progress, has, with more knowledge at our disposal than anyone could have dreamed, turned again and again into a vision of disaster. Thus the Palestinian writer Anton Shammas in the Jerusalem weekly Kol Ha’ir, in a fit of medical, sexual, and political fantasy, recently described Israel’s Declaration of Independence of 1948 as, the AIDS of “the Jewish State in the Land of Israel,” whose long incubation has produced Gush Emunim and…[Rabbi Meir] Kahane. Reality has bifurcated, into the real thing and an alternative version of it, twice over. People are storing their own blood, for future use. From the untrammeled intercontinental air travel for pleasure and business of the privileged to the unprecedented migrations of the underprivileged from villages to cities and, legally and illegally, from country to country—all this physical mobility and interconnectedness (with its consequent dissolving of old taboos, social and sexual) is as vital to the maximum functioning of the advanced, or world, capitalist economy as is the easy transmissibility of goods and images and financial instruments. Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphors. This piece, written at the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, examines in terms similar to those used in the earlier work how the disease was being described at the time, when there was much talk of contamination, plagues, and punishment. Praise for Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphors “Susan Sontag's Illness as Metaphor was the first to point out the accusatory side of the metaphors of empowerment that seek to enlist the patient's will to resist disease. Besides the photographic or electronic simulation of events, there is also the calculation of their eventual outcome. And these mass incidences of illness are understood as inflicted, not just endured. # Illness As Metaphor And Aids And Its Metaphors # Uploaded By Clive Cussler, aids and its metaphors was published in 1988 while illness as a metaphor was published ten years earlier before the emergence of aids into the global conscious sontag herself ties the two texts together by beginning the second one with a response to critics of A whole politics of “the will”—of intolerance, of paranoia, of fear of political weakness—has fastened on this disease. The fact that illness is associated with the poor—who are, from the perspective of the privileged, aliens in one’s midst—reinforces the association of illness with the foreign: with an exotic, often primitive place. Uncertainty about how much the disease will spread—how soon and to whom—remains at the center of public discourse about AIDS. And underneath: “France doesn’t want to die of AIDS” (La France ne veut pas mourir du sida). Sontag explores how attitudes to disease are formed in society, and attempts to deconstruct them. Illness is experienced as a species of invasion, and indeed is often carried by soldiers. (America, someone has said, is a nation with the soul of a church—an evangelical church prone to announcing radical endings and brand-new beginnings.) (An emergency requires “drastic measures,” et cetera….) Of course, between the official hypocrisy and the increasingly fashionable libertinism of recent decades there is a vast gap. Talk in the United States, and not only in the United States, is of a national emergency, “possibly our nation’s survival.” An editorialist at The New York Times intoned last year: “We all know the truth, every one of us. It cannot be considered just a coupling; it is a chain, a chain of transmission, from the past. Epidemics of particularly feared illnesses always provoke an outcry against leniency or tolerance—now identified as laxity, weakness, disorder, corruption: unhealthiness. And strictures about contact now have their place in the computer world as well. And there is what it portends: the imminent, but not yet actual, and not really graspable, disaster. Friend” (1657). All rapid epidemics, including those in which there is no suspicion of sexual transmission or any blaming of the ill, give rise to roughly similar practices of avoidance and exclusion. Camus’s The Plague, which appeared a decade later, is a far less literal use of plague by another great European liberal, as subtle as Capek’s The White Plague is schematic. The emergence of a new catastrophic epidemic, when for several decades it had been confidently assumed that such calamities belonged to the past, would not be enough to revive the moralistic inflation of an epidemic into a “plague.” It was necessary that the epidemic be one whose most common means of transmission is sexual. Say: the number now…in three years, in five years, in ten years; and, of course, at the end of the century. This split of public attitude, into the inhuman and the all-too-human, is much-less stark with AIDS. Susan Sontag’s 1978 book Illness As Metaphor is an eighty-seven-page work of critical theory exploring the language we use to describe disease and its connotations.She argues against the victim-blaming metaphors commonly used to describe diseases. And they themselves, many of them, evolve. “It cannot be mastered in the West unless it is overcome everywhere.” In contrast to the rhetoric of global responsibility, a specialty of the international conferences, is the view, increasingly heard, in which AIDS is regarded as a kind of Darwinian test of a society’s aptitude for survival, which may require writing off those countries that can’t defend themselves. I have a beautiful address book a friend gave me in 1966. Linda Ronstadt, explaining why she prefers doing Mexican folk music to rock ‘n’ roll, recently observed: “We don’t have any tradition in contemporary music except change. But it is certainly true that were AIDS only an African disease, however many millions were dying, few outside of Africa would be concerned with it. The dictum that cleanliness is next to godliness is to be taken quite literally. “This is a totally foreign disease, and the only way to stop its spread is to stop sexual contacts between Indians and foreigners,” declared the director general of the Indian government’s Council for Medical Research, thereby avowing the total defenselessness of a population nearing a billion for which there are currently no trained hospital staff members or treatment centers anywhere specializing in the disease. Interpreting any catastrophic epidemic as a sign of moral laxity or political decline was as common until the later part of the last century as associating diseases with foreign-ness. In the end one cannot avoid the conclusion that AIDS unites certain human themes -- homosexuality, sexual disease, and death -- about which society actively resists enlightenment. Thus, in most discussions of nuclear war-fare, being “rational” (the self-description of experts) means not acknowledging the human reality, while taking in emotionally even a small part of what is at stake for human beings (the province of those who regard themselves as the menaced) means insisting on unrealistic demands for the rapid dismantling of the peril. It is simply an opportunistic virus that does what it has to do to stay alive. Part of the centuries-old conception of Europe as a privileged cultural entity is that it is a place which is colonized by lethal diseases coming from elsewhere. (And to some extent it is. It was years before AIDS that William Burroughs oracularly declared, and Laurie Anderson later echoed, “Language is a virus.” And the viral explanation is invoked more and more often. The survival of the nation, of civilized society, of the world itself is said to be at stake—claims that are a familiar part of building a case for repression. It's part of being a decent human to be tested for STDs. “Never put a disk in your computer without verifying its source.” The so-called vaccine programs being marketed are said to offer some protection; but the only sure way to curb the threat of computer viruses, experts agree, is not to share programs and data. They transport genetic “information,” they transform cells. Thinking of syphilis as a punishment for a person’s transgression was for a long time, virtually until the disease became easily curable, not really distinct from regarding it as retribution for the licentiousness of a community—as with AIDS now, in the rich industrial countries. Nor was a more recent epidemic, polio. medical professionals and above all on the lives of many thousands of patients and caregivers illness as metaphor and aids and its metaphors quotes showing 1 25 of 25 a large part of the popularity and persuasiveness of psychology comes from its being a sublimated spiritualism a secular ostensibly scientific way of affirming the primacy of Contraception and the assurance by medicine of the easy curability of sexually transmitted diseases (as of almost all infectious diseases) made it possible to regard sex as an adventure without consequences. (There was a trial run for the conversion of sexuality to something dangerous in the widely diffused panic about herpes in the United States in the early 1980s—and herpes was merely awful, erotically disqualifying; hardly lethal.) 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